Human beings have a strong tendency to put new facts into pre-existing categories. This is useful to mentally and culturally classify similar events under the same logical umbrella, so when two days ago I clarified that the Redis core was still released under the vanilla BSD license, and only certain Redis modules developed by Redis Labs were going to change license, from AGPL to a different non open source license, people said “Ah! Ok you are going open core”. The simplification this time does not work if it is in your interest to capture the truth of what is happening here. An open core technology requires two things. One is that the system is modular, and the other is that parts of such system are made proprietary in order to create a product around an otherwise free software. For example providing a single node of a database into the open source, and then having the clustering logic and mechanism implemented in a different non-free layer, is an open core technology. Similarly is open core if I write a relational database with a modular storage system, but the only storage that is able to provide strong guarantees is non free. In an open core business model around an open source system it is *fundamental* that you take something useful out of the free software part.
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Today a page about the new Common Clause license in the Redis Labs web site was interpreted as if Redis itself switched license. This is not the case, Redis is, and will remain, BSD licensed. However in the era of  uncontrollable spreading of information, my attempts to provide the correct information failed, and I’m still seeing everywhere “Redis is no longer open source”. The reality is that Redis remains BSD, and actually Redis Labs did the right thing supporting my effort to keep the Redis core open as usually.
A bit more than one month ago I received an email from the Apple Information Security team. During an auditing the Apple team found a security issue in the Redis Lua subsystem, specifically in the cmsgpack library. The library is not part of Lua itself, it is an implementation of MessagePack I wrote myself. In the course of merging a pull request improving the feature set, a security issue was added. Later the same team found a new issue in the Lua struct library, again such library was not part of Lua itself, at least in the release of Lua we use: we just embedded the source code inside our Lua implementation in order to provide some functionality to the Lua interpreter that is available to Redis users. Then I found another issue in the same struct package, and later the Alibaba team found many other issues in cmsgpack and other code paths using the Lua API. In a short amount of time I was sitting on a pile of Lua related vulnerabilities.
A few days ago I started my day with my Twitter feed full of articles saying something like: “75% of Redis servers infected by malware”. The obvious misquote referred to a research by Incapsula where they found that 75% of the Redis instances left open on the internet, without any protection, on a public IP address, are infected .  https://www.incapsula.com/blog/report-75-of-open-redis-servers-are-infected.html Many folks don’t need any clarification about all this, because if you have some grip on computer security and how Redis works, you can contextualize all this without much efforts. However I’m writing this blog post for two reasons. The obvious one is that it can help the press and other users that are not much into security and/or Redis to understand what’s going on. The second is that the exposed Redis instances are a case study about safe defaults that should be interesting for the security circles.
[This blog post is also experimentally available on Medium: https://medium.com/antirez/a-short-tale-of-a-read-overflow-b9210d339cff] When a long running process crashes, it is pretty uncool. More so if the process happens to take a lot of state in memory. This is why I love web programming frameworks that are able, without major performance overhead, to create a new interpreter and a new state for each page view, and deallocate every resource used at the end of the page generation. It is an inherently more reliable programming paradigm, where memory leaks, descriptor leaks, and even random crashes from time to time do not constitute a serious issue. However system software like Redis is at the other side of the spectrum, a side populated by things that should never crash.
I saw multiple users asking me what is happening with Streams, when they’ll be ready for production uses, and in general what’s the ETA and the plan of the feature. This post will attempt to clarify a bit what comes next. To start, in this moment Streams are my main priority: I want to finish this work that I believe is very useful in the Redis community and immediately start with the Redis Cluster improvements plans. Actually the work on Cluster has already started, with my colleague Fabio Nicotra that is porting redis-trib, the Cluster management tool, inside the old and good redis-cli. This step involves translating the code from Ruby to C. In the meantime, a few weeks ago I finished writing the Streams core, and I deleted the “streams” feature branch, merging everything into the “unstable” branch.
Four days ago a user posted a critical issue in the Redis Github repository. The problem was related to the new Redis 4.0 PSYNC2 replication protocol, and was very critical. PSYNC2 brings a number of good things to Redis replication, including the ability to resynchronize just exchanging the differences, and not the whole data set, after a failover, and even after a slave controlled restart. The problem was about this latter feature: with PSYNC2 the RDB file is augmented with replication information. After a slave is restarted, the replication metadata is loaded back, and the slave is able to perform a PSYNC attempt, trying to handshake with the master and receive the differences since the last disconnection.
Until a few months ago, for me streams were no more than an interesting and relatively straightforward concept in the context of messaging. After Kafka popularized the concept, I mostly investigated their usefulness in the case of Disque, a message queue that is now headed to be translated into a Redis 4.2 module. Later I decided that Disque was all about AP messaging, which is, fault tolerance and guarantees of delivery without much efforts from the client, so I decided that the concept of streams was not a good match in that case.
Today I read an interesting article about how the Wolfenstein 3D game implemented a fade effect using a Linear Feedback Shift Register. Every pixel of the screen is set red in a pseudo random way, till all the screen turns red (or other colors depending on the event happening in the game). The blog post describing the implementation is here and is a nice read: http://fabiensanglard.net/fizzlefade/index.php You may wonder why the original code used a LFSR or why I'm proposing a different approach, instead of the vanilla setPixel(rand(),rand()): doing this with a pseudo random generator, as noted in the blog post, is slow, but is also visually very unpleasant, since the more red pixels you have on the screen already, the less likely is that you hit a new yet-not-red pixel, so the final pixels take forever to turn red (I *bet* that many readers of this blog post tried it in the old times of the Spectum, C64, or later with QBASIC or GWBasic). In the final part of the blog post the author writes:
A 10x programmer is, in the mythology of programming, a programmer that can do ten times the work of another normal programmer, where for normal programmer we can imagine one good at doing its work, but without the magical abilities of the 10x programmer. Actually to better characterize the “normal programmer” it is better to say that it represents the one having the average programming output, among the programmers that are professionals in this discipline. The programming community is extremely polarized about the existence or not of such a beast: who says there is no such a thing as the 10x programmer, who says it actually does not just exist, but there are even 100x programmers if you know where to look for.